New: 2 dev tools launched! SpiceDB LSP support and VS Code extension now available

Writing relationships to SpiceDB

February 17, 2022|8 min read

SpiceDB is Authzed's open source, Zanzibar-inspired permissions system.

Like any permissions system, the primary goal of SpiceDB and Authzed's hosted platform is the ability to answers questions of the form:

does <subject> have <permission> on <resource>?

To answer such questions, a permissions system must know how the subject and resource relate to one another: Does the subject perhaps have a role on the resource granting the permission, as in a traditional Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) system? Does there exist an attribute granting permission to the subject, as in an Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) system? Is the subject granted permission based on some policy?

SpiceDB (and Zanzibar), on the other hand, operates slightly differently.

Forming a relationship

SpiceDB is not a role-, or attribute-, or even policy-based permissions system.

Rather, SpiceDB (and Zanzibar) are relationship based permissions systems (ReBAC). By defining the relationship between resources and subjects, SpiceDB can compute permissions by walking a directed graph, finding a path between the resource+permission and the subject for which the permission is being checked.

This model of permissions is extremely powerful, as simpler models (such as RBAC) can be represented, while also supporting more complex or unique forms of permissions resolution.

How are these relationships supplied, however, to SpiceDB?

Why is SpiceDB… a DB?

At Authzed we've often been asked to explain the origin of the name "SpiceDB".

The "Spice" portion of the name comes from the "spice" found in Dune, as the original Zanzibar project was, we believe, originally named after the novel.

The "DB" portion of the name, on the other hand, was chosen deliberately to highlight one of the most significant differences between SpiceDB and other permissions systems:

The relationships between resources and subjects used for permissions checks are stored within SpiceDB's data store: rather than providing these relationships at "check" time, they are available to any SpiceDB node when permissions are being computed

Why is this important? Performance and consistency!

One of the major goals of the Zanzibar project (and SpiceDB) is to provide a horizontally scalable permissions system that can answer thousands or millions of simultaneous permissions questions in 10s of milliseconds, while also providing guarantees around consistency, to prevent problems such as the new enemy problem.

If the relationships between objects and subjects were sent to SpiceDB/Authzed on each call, the burden to provide fast, reliable and consistent data access would fall on the shoulders of the callers, in every language and service.

With SpiceDB storing the relationships, all of these concerns can be handled directly by SpiceDB, with the caller to CheckPermission only having to specify whether they want full consistency or allow caching to be used.

Writing relationships

The major question therefore becomes: How do applications robustly and consistently write these relationships into both the application's database, as well as SpiceDB?

We've found that there are a number of solutions, depending on your application's design and requirements. Below we outline a few of the existing best practices.

Two writes + commit

The most common and straightforward way to store relationships in SpiceDB is to use a 2PC-like approach.

In an application backed by a standard relational database, the application can make use of the database's transaction system to provide a solid solution:

# Open the database transaction
with db.transaction() as transaction:
    # Update the relationship in the database.
    document = Document(

    # Add the relationship(s) in SpiceDB.
    resp = client.WriteRelationships(...)

    # Store the ZedToken we've received.
    document.zedtoken = result.written_at

    # Transaction is committed on close

The above approach has some nice properties:

  • On success, the ZedToken returned by the WriteRelationships call is written alongside the data in the relational database, ensuring proper consistency
  • If the SpiceDB update fails for any reason, the database changes will never be applied
  • If the database transaction fails to open, SpiceDB will not be updated
  • If the database transaction fails to commit, the relationship will existing in SpiceDB, but there will be no objects for it in the relational database - in many schemas, this means that the relationship in SpiceDB is likely "superfluous", never being used in a CheckPermission, and therefore safe to have around (minus some extra space being taken up)

In the case where cleanup is warranted, an optional OPERATION_DELETE can be added to the above, to ensure that if the database transaction fails to complete, the relationship is removed from SpiceDB:

# Open the database transaction
    with db.transaction() as transaction:
        # Update the relationship in the database.
        document = Document(

        # Add the relationship(s) in SpiceDB.
        resp = client.WriteRelationships(...)

        # Store the ZedToken we've received.
        document.zedtoken = result.written_at

        # Transaction is committed on close
    # delete the relationship(s) just written

Streaming commits

Another approach is to stream updates to both a relational database and SpiceDB via a third party streaming system such as Kafka, using a pattern known as Command Query Responsibility Segregation

In this design, any updates to the relationships in both databases are published as events to the streaming service, with each event being consumed by a system which performs the updates in both the database and in SpiceDB. In other words, each application commands a change, which is in turn handled by a service querying for those commands and applying the changes.

In the case that the update to either system fails, the update in both databases are rolled back, and the event is requeued to be processed again.

This approach has a number of its own advantages:

  • Updates are retried if the update to either database fails.
  • Application only needs to know how to push events; the processor(s) take care of updating the individual databases.
  • Updates can easily be logged by the streaming system.

Not storing relationships in the relational database

Sometimes, an application does not even need to store permissions-related relationships in its relational database.

Consider a permissions system that allows for teams of users to be created and used to access a resource. In SpiceDB's schema, this could be represented as:

definition user {}

definition team {
  relation member: user

definition resource {
  relation reader: user | team#member
  permission view = reader

In the above example, the relationship between a resource and its teams, as well as a team and its members does not need to be stored in the application's database at all.

Rather, this information can be stored solely in SpiceDB, and accessed by the application via a ReadRelationships or ExpandPermissionsTree call when necessary.

The only data that the application database might need to store is metadata, such as the team's friendly name, while SpiceDB acts as the source of truth for resources and teams.

This approach also has another benefit: changes to the computation of the permissions can be done without any code changes, as the full set of relationships and their computed permissions exists completely within the SpiceDB schema.

Asynchronous Updates of SpiceDB

NOTE: This should only be used if your application supports less rigid consistency guarantees.

If an application does not require up-to-the-second consistent permissions checking, and some replication lag in permissions checking is acceptable, then asynchronous updates of the relationships in SpiceDB can be used.

In this design, a synchronization process, typically running in the background, is used to write relationships to SpiceDB in reaction to any changes that occur in the primary relational database.

The major downside of this approach is the replication lag: If the replication process starts lagging, permissions checks could become more and more stale, which could then become an issue for more sensitive applications.

Designs for the future

As we've seen above, there are a number of solutions today for storing relationships in both an application's relational database, as well as SpiceDB.

Moving forward, Authzed is committed to making this process even easier For example, we already have a prototype tool that allows for easy migration of PostgreSQL foreign keys to relationships within SpiceDB.

Longer term, we're interested in hearing from you, the community, on how to make this process of updating easier.

Have an idea? Join the community in Discord to discuss!

Additional Reading

If you’re interested in learning more about Authorization and Google Zanzibar, we recommend reading the following posts:

Get started for free

Join 1000s of companies doing authorization the right way.